Latest Rhino Poaching figures

Below is a copy from a Media Release:

Rhino Poaching in South Africa in 2021

10 February 2022

A total of 451 rhino were poached in South Africa in 2021, 327 within government reserves and 124 on private property. While there is a 24 percent decrease in rhino poaching compared to the pre-Covid period in 2019, there has been an increase in poaching on private properties.

In 2021, 209 rhino were poached for their horns in South African National Parks – all in the Kruger National Park. This was in fact a decrease in comparison to 2020 when 247 rhino were poached within the national parks. It is important to note that none of SANParks’ smaller rhino parks experienced any rhino losses from poaching in 2021, in comparison to the two rhino that were poached in 2020.

The steady decline in rhino poaching in Kruger Park is related to an increase in the intensity of anti-poaching activities in the Kruger National Park. A close working relationship between the police’s endangered species unit, the SANParks environmental crimes inspectorate has resulted in increased arrests and convictions.

One of the unintended consequences is that poaching syndicates are looking to other areas for easy prey and this has resulted in their targeting private reserves in Limpopo and Mpumalanga.

Over the last year, conservation and anti-poaching efforts have intensified countrywide as a joint effort is made by state-owned conservation areas, government and private landowners to reduce the poaching of rhino in South Africa. More targeted deployment of resources is being assisted by the rollout of a CSIR-developed situational awareness platform known as CMORE into the integrated wildlife zones. Through this single technology platform, all role players are able to collaborate, making use of real-time insights and analytical capability, linking, for example, camera traps and ranger patrols while integrating a range of other systems.

Information collected and communication flows through the Environmental Enforcement Fusion Centre (EEFC) which continues to support the teams at both a tactical level and strategic level. Our analysis capabilities have also improved, resulting in the increased identification of those involved in rhino poaching and trafficking and improved and expanded investigations by multi-disciplinary teams.

SANParks, provincial nature reserves and private rhino owners are dehorning rhino to deter poachers, while SANParks is investigating the feasibility of additional actions such as anti-poaching initiatives focused on apprehending poachers and establishing additional founder populations outside the Kruger National Park.

Government continues to work closely with the private sector and non-governmental organisations through the Integrated Strategic Management of Rhinoceros approach and the draft National Integrated Strategy to Combat Wildlife Trafficking (NISCWT) to address rhino poaching. In 2021 there were 189 arrests in connection with poaching activities: 77 within the Kruger National Park and 109 outside the Park. This compares with 156 people arrested countrywide in 2020. In the 38 verdicts handed down by the courts, 37 cases resulted in the conviction of 61 accused rhino poachers/traffickers.

The following are among some of the successful prosecutions during 2021:

  • Project Python: Three persons were arrested and several properties seized. The 3 accused were charged with racketeering and money laundering relating to rhino horn trafficking. One of the accused Ping WU was convicted on two money laundering charges in the Tembisa regional court. The case was remanded to 9 February 2022 for sentencing. The racketeering trial against the other two accused, Huang and Chen, continues and was postponed to 3 March 2022 for the state to lead further evidence.
  • S v Arlendo Mhlanga; Hlayisile Adam Hlongwane; Inancio Chauke were sentenced to 85 years of imprisonment, effective sentence of 35 years imprisonment after being convicted on 10 counts in relation to the killing of three rhinos in the Pilanesberg National Park, the possession, transportation, cutting of 6 rhino horns, theft and the possession of a prohibited firearm and ammunition and trespassing. In addition, the Ford Courier vehicle which was used during the commission of the offences was forfeited to the State.
  • S v W Mhangani & and 2 others were convicted for killing 3 rhinos within the Kruger National Park, for being illegally in SA, trespassing, possession of unlicensed firearm and the possession of unlicensed ammunition. Accused 1 was sentenced to an effective 45 years imprisonment and accused 2 and 3 were sentenced to an effective 30 years imprisonment.
  • S v GV Tibane and J Matshinga Sithole were sentenced to 19 years imprisonment following a conviction in relation to trespassing in the Kruger National Park, contravention of the Immigration Act, illegal killing of a rhino, possession of firearm with obliterated serial number, possession of silencer, possession of firearm with intent to commit crime, possession of ammunition and possession of an axe.
  • S v Emmanuel Mdluli was sentenced to 16 years imprisonment after being convicted on charges of trespassing, possession of firearm with the intention to poach a rhino, possession of firearm with serial number obliterated, conspiracy to commit a crime, possession of dangerous weapon, contravening Immigration Act.

On the international front, the following are examples of the important work that is taking place between South Africa and those countries implicated in wildlife crime:

  • A Mutual Legal Assistance (MLA) process was successfully finalised between SA and Poland, after receipt of a request from Poland relating to rhino horn trophy hunting in South Africa;
  • Operation Golden Strike, which relates to the cooperative work done between Southern Africa and South East Asia, has set a platform for better cooperation between these countries with the aim to combat wildlife trafficking at international levels. Several successful operations, bilateral engagements and information sharing sessions were conducted during the reporting period;
  • A controlled delivery between South Africa and Vietnam took place in July 2021, resulting from the work between the Hawks and the Vietnamese authorities on a consignment of rhino horns and suspected lion bones that were trafficked to Vietnam. The operation was successfully conducted and 138kg of rhino horns and an estimated 3 tons of suspected lion bones were seized at Da Nang Port in Vietnam. The investigation continues between the two countries;
  • Cross border investigations between South Africa and the People’s Republic of China are underway as a result of a joint integrated operation between the Hawks, assisted by DFFE and the transport sector at OR Tambo International Airport in December 2021. A total of 32 rhino horns were seized. The information obtained during this operation was shared with the People’s Republic of China authorities, which resulted in the arrest of one suspect in South Africa and two suspects in China as well as the seizure of additional rhino horns.

South Africa remains committed to safeguarding the country’s rhino populations and will continue to work tirelessly, alongside the private sector, committed NGOs as well as authorities in transit and destination countries, to combat wildlife crime.

** Members of the public can report any suspicious activities around wildlife to its environmental crime hotline which is 0800 205 005 or the SAPS number 10111.

To access a recording of Minister Creecy’s statement:

Issued by:
The Department of Forestry, Fisheries and the Environment

Media enquiries:
Albi Modise on 083 490 2871

Change people’s minds

We moved back to South Africa in April 2021. I am considering how I can engage with my Rhino project again. I see myself as an activist and communicator with regards to the challenges these animals are experiencing.

I joined a group work session with the OCA (the current university where I study Fine Arts) around making Zines and being an activist. I do not think the solution lies in aggressive or confrontational communication.

It is clear the pull for the horn comes from East Asian countries, like China. We need education and awareness of the effect of this consumption in Africa as well as in China.

I would like to consider the following questions in the coming months:

  • Dehorning: female rhinos could be seen as important, as the rhino population is threatened when females who are pregnant is killed by poachers.
  • Will it make a difference in conservation?
  • Can I collaborate with other artists?
  • Can I collaborate with any conservationists?

For now, I believe that a live rhino is an asset, not a rhino horn.

Living out of Africa

I wondered how I will continue my blog and drawings whilst living in the UAE for the next few years.

A wonderful opportunity came along to partake in a local art competition. I had framed one of the drawings and entered it into a competition during November 2019.

Consumption 1

Dubai International Art Centre (DIAC) had an exhibition in their gallery. Gallery 76 is the oldest public art gallery in the UAE and is housed at the Centre. Unfortunately I missed opening might, had visitors from home, and received a message too late on my phone to inform me that my painting won the competition and that I should attend the award ceremony.

I have some photos to remind me…but my rhino drawing was seen by more people, which made me happy. O yes, the theme of the competition was, The Year of Tolerance.

The making of above drawing was done by using a newspaper clipping when Prince Harry (December 2015) joined forces against the rhino horn trade and visited Southern Africa to give his support. The decomposed rhino carcass is one where he posed with an official of Parks board in the Kruger National Park. My journey has taken me to spend some time with a monitoring team…see earlier blog. I added the vulture, which for me symbolizes our consumer culture. In the combat in our national parks, it is many a time the vulture’s presence which indicates poaching.

World Rhino Day

Just think for a moment that you are consuming rhino horn……, because you believe, hope, experiment that this horn can cure your cancer, can stop your hang over……or simply impress your friends.

This horn comes from a live rhino, which was killed in order to cut its horn.

This killing was illegal, the people killing the rhino were paid by international crime syndicates who bribe and run an illegal and underworld economy.

The rhino numbers are now threatened and areas where these animals roam are now protected by armed guards. Wildlife is in danger.

Are you ok with this consumption?

Consumption of rhino horn: the root of the rhino crisis is the myth that rhino horn contains curative properties.

World Rhino Day highlights efforts to debunk the myths and diminish the demand for rhino horn.

The smuggling and distribution of rhino horn is now believed to be the work of Vietnamese syndicates, among others.


The ornamental use of rhino horn dates back to at least the 7th century.

Over the centuries, rhino horns have been carved into ceremonial cups, buttons, belt buckles, hair pins and paperweights.

In Traditional Chinese Medicine, the horn is shaved or ground into a powder and dissolved in boiling water.

So we know:

The main consumers of rhino horn are living in Vietnam and China.

How will World Rhino Day on 22 September 2018 impact on this?

A great initiative by PeaceParkFoundation:

Thoughts on Earth Day

I do hope you have given thought today on how you can protect our planet.  The use of plastic is disturbing as we see the disastrous effects of it in our oceans and marine life around the world.  Just Friday late afternoon I had a walk in my area and was so sad to see all the plastic bags on the banks of the river – hanging onto the bank like washing on a line!  I use recycled shopping bags, but need to cut on using plastic packaging when  buying fresh food, fruits and vegetables.

During April 2018 I had the privilege of spending a few days in the Khutse area, part of the Central Kalahari Game Reserve in Botswana, as well as next to the Orange River near Hopetown and in  Mokala National Park Northern Cape Province of South Africa.  We were blessed with thunderstorms and downpour of rains and the most beautiful clouds, as well as seeing a full moon rising… and game on the lovely grassed veld.

To go into solitude, a man needs to retire as much from his chamber as from society,” wrote Ralph Waldo Emerson in his seminal essay, “Nature.” 

I love to spend these days quietly and observing;  sitting, listening and looking mostly.  Trees, plants, birds, animals, and the beautiful early morning awakening and then the quieting of the early evening are part of this daily experience in the bush.  I try to capture it by making drawings and really opening my senses to what nature has to offer every day.

It is with this experience in nature that I want to explore why we conserve and why we visit nature and have days to commemorate nature.   The more I research about nature conservation the more I am under the impression that current efforts are not really making the desired impact – more and more species and natural areas are endangered.  These wilderness areas I visited with my family have been set aside as parks or as wilderness areas.  Could they not be seen as just islands of pristine nature, protected from development, agriculture, mining, damming and urbanisation, that are visited by tourists and or naturalists?   I am becoming aware that protection of these wilderness areas  often involved resettling large numbers of people, too often without fair compensation for their lost homes, hunting grounds, and agricultural lands.  At Mokala Interpretation Centre I became aware that nature conservation brought confrontation with the indigenous peoples of the area.

As a family we love camping and I have always looked at this utilising of nature as a way of making less impact on pristine nature conservation areas, but our parks are more and more filled with luxury lodges,  tourists accommodation with modern amenities (wi-fi, tv, restaurants)  busy camping sites, eco trails for our expensive 4×4 vehicles and other game viewing vehicles, all leaving the footprint of development due to infrastructure needs –  buildings, roads, sanitation,refuge removal,  toilets and  water supply.  These areas are not accessible for most people living in and around these areas and I do understand that the economy is fed by tourism.   The thoughts  that I am pondering on is that here  in  Southern Africa nature and humankind evolved together, generations of pastoralists farmers and nomadic cattlemen have walked the wilderness and had to protect and compete for safety, food and survival.  They lived in close relationship with the sounds and sights of nature, and  the ‘civilized Westerner’ came much later and started dictating arrogant nature conservation practices, which alienated people from nature.    By now many conservationists are realising that conservation should demonstrate that the fates of nature and of people are  intertwined.  Nature conservation strategies should be about the health and prosperity of nature and people.  Addressing poverty,  income deprivation in areas around our game reserves, national parks and wilderness areas will have to be part of nature conservation plans.

John Muir, a forefather of the American conservation movement, argued that “wilderness” should be cleared of all inhabitants and set aside to satisfy the urbane human’s need for recreation and spiritual renewal.”

I am convinced this is a exclusive view of conservation.

I have started a  painting on a copper plate – here is the photo reference for my study.

Leaving at dusk-25

Leaving at Dusk – a photo taken by photographer (my talented sister in law)  Mietsie Visser.

This photo of the three rhinos running away in this beautiful time of the day inspired me to discuss a  different kind of drawing with  my art tutor, Johan Conradie.  I decided to look at the daguerreotype photographic process – a development during the Victorian era. The atmospheric effects of these Daguerreo type photographs are  beautiful for me, and  I love the idea of using this photo of Mietsie and linking it to the development of  my exploration with lines.  Due the to influence of photography that shows reality, art could use this way of seeing.


Daguerro type


On the easel: trying to capture the light, then the background, some more lines and scratching on the copperplate. I hope to reach a Daguerro type painting.

Working on lift-off…

Whilst busy finishing a charcoal drawing of lift off on Hahnemuhle etching paper,  I am also preparing for my first Intaglio print.   I hope my etching will compliment the drawing I started during a previous blog.   I am influenced to use a painting of Clara the rhinoceros in my etching.  Clara, and Indian Rhinoceros, was being taken around Europe for at least 17 years –  in the painting I am inspired by,  Clara is shown to the public at the Venice Carnival and was painted by Pietro Longhi in 1751. My attempt is to focus on our complex relationship with the rhinoceros.

Photo reference material for the rhino drawing, was taken from the website and Youtube videos of Rhinos without Borders.  Theirs is an effort to translocate vulnerable rhinos to safer areas within bordering Botswana. These rhinos are mostly from private landowners within South Africa.  A leading luxury travel company, andBeyond and Great Plains Conservation are part of this initiative. By November 2017, 77 animals were safely in Botswana.  Currently many rhinos are being translocated to safer areas as well as to enhance gene pools.

I have now come to an understanding that humanity have seen and known about the imminent extinction of Sudan and the last Northern White Rhinoceros sup species without doing much to protect the species.  Their numbers started to decline since the early 1900s, due to unsustainable hunting practices, lack of coordinated conservation efforts by governments and escalating poaching, corruption and wars in these affected countries.

Poachers reduced their population from 2000  to 500 in the 1960s , and  to a shocking number of only 15 by 1984.  In 1977, all African rhino species were listed under Appendix I, and all international commercial trade in rhinos and their products was prohibited.   Till mid 2003 this population recovered to more than 32, however poaching has intensified and these numbers were further reduced.

I have done a lot of reading prior to starting my “exploration with lines’ writings, and a brilliant writing I enjoyed by prof Linda Kalof (published 2007) gave me wonderful context to understand (and attempt to draw) this complex  interrelationship between humans and animals informed by cultural norms, as well as the physical attributes and the real or perceived behaviour of animals. It inspired me to look at the history of art and animals such as a rhinoceros.  It is a visual narrative of  our fascination with strong, powerful and dangerous animals, symbols that could be used in rituals, festivals…. even making animals scapegoats and opening up all moral questions about animal cruelty.  The Four Stages of Cruelty, done by William Hogarth in 1751, where graphic torture against animals are shown as a logical progression to move from animal cruelty to humans influenced my mindset to look at the current horrific trafficking of animals and animal body parts within the criminal world.  The insatiable demand for rhino horn in the East is underpinned by age-old beliefs in its presumed pharmacological properties, in particular as an antidote against poison, to treat fevers and as a cure for cancer and other illnesses.

Whilst researching this topic, I found an interesting article at  SA, July 2014,  ‘The cultural and symbolic significance of the African rhinoceros: a review of the traditional beliefs, perceptions and practices of agra-pastoralist societies in Southern Africa”  (written by Jan C A Boeyens and M van der Ryst). Understanding this information as looking at rhinos in a pre-colonial period of Southern Africa, I believe this information should be seen as national heritage and be shared to evoke re action towards the poaching of rhinos for their horns, and driving the species to extinction. I do not know enough to have an opinion on Anthropology, but l understand their research has revealed that African cosmology, social life and material culture are marked by rich symbolism.

I take away with me the rhinoceros as part of Southern African metaphors, proverbs and rituals. The rhinoceros  as the ruler/ leader/political power and his ever following companion, the oxpecker bird… a friend or protector.  ( The Tswana people named this bird kala ya tshukudu, meaning the servant of the rhinoceros, an association which enriched the Tswana language with many metaphors). A cut from the breast of a slaughtered rhinoceros was the preserve of a chief and was received as tribute from his subjects. The presentation of a cut-off rhino head to a defiant leader or a subject chief conveyed a clear message that subordination would not be tolerated and that magic would be applied to restore the political order.  Praise poems of Tswana chiefs, regents and other aspiring leaders or heroes abound with references to the rhino as a leadership symbol. At least fifteen praise poems have been documented in which such dignitaries are either addressed or referred to as a rhinoceros, or are associated with characteristics or powers attributed to the rhinoceros. The rhino metaphor also features prominently in praise poems of Tswana chiefs. In this regard, too, there is a strong emphasis on the horns of the rhino as the key anatomical trait that epitomised the danger, aggression, authority, protection and military success of a leader. The front horn was not only a weapon of attack and defence, but its cutting action symbolised the final authority and decision-making responsibilities of the chief.  The rhinoceros were  hunted for its meat but various parts, such as the skin and horn, were used to fashion ornaments and weapons.  A special club of rhino horn served as a marker of chiefly authority. ( I will try to find a  photographic copy of this club in our National Museum of Cultural History)

african rhino horn club

Rhino horn club – I found this on a website (it says SOLD?)

Rhino horns and bones also featured in rainmaking rituals. Monoliths adorning the central courts of nineteenth-century Tswana towns, as well as the walls or courts of Zimbabwe culture and Venda capitals, most probably represented rhino horns, and so captured the key qualities of African leadership in the architecture of towns.

The remains of a few rhino figurines  that have been recovered from archaeological sites in South Africa tells that they served as “aids to memory” in lessons on traditional customs, norms and beliefs, and were mostly displayed at initiation ceremonies. It also seems that  the iconic golden rhinoceros from Mapungubwe “was most likely an emblem of royal power”.

golden rhino at British Museum

The power of the golden rhinoceros was  recognised by the first post-apartheid administration in South Africa, the African National Congress, the ANC appropriated the golden rhinoceros for the new South Africa and held it up as evidence of a southern African Renaissance before the arrival of Europeans. In 1999, the gold rhinoceros was designated a National Treasure.  In 2002, the ANC created the Order of Mapungubwe, the highest honour in South Africa, of which there are four classes: platinum, gold, silver and bronze.  Nelson Mandela was the first to receive the highest of these awards, platinum.  At the centre of the award is a representation of the gold rhinoceros.

Ps:This is directly taken from mentioned published article: “Trade in rhinoceros horn, ivory and tortoise-shell along the East African coast with Arabia and the Orient was first recorded in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a guide that was probably compiled in about AD 100 (Hall 1987: 78). Although there is no direct evidence, it seems plausible that unworked rhinoceros horn, elephant ivory tusks and probably gold could have constituted export items earmarked for external or international trade reaching the East Coast from Middle Iron Age communities in the Shashe-Limpopo Basin (Calabrese 2005: 350–2). Whether, or to what extent, perceptions and beliefs prevalent in the East about the presumed medicinal or supernatural properties of rhino horn would have permeated into the African interior is difficult to gauge, but the external demand for rhino horn would certainly have added to its local commercial value and enhanced its cultural significance. ”

I have decided to place my rhino being lifted to safety above the Union Buildings.  A question I want to leave the reader/viewer with, is:  what are we doing to save our white and black rhinos in South Africa?

IMG_4568 lift off

The villains must be put to the front in this war against Rhino horn poaching

Today we heard about the death of the last male Northern White Rhino in “captivity”. Sudan reached the age of 45, but lived in the Ol Pejeta  Conservancy in Kenya conservancy where he was being treated for age-related complications and guarded against horn poachers by caretakers. It is unknown if any Northern White Rhinos are alive in the rest of Africa.

Due to demand for rhino horn a rhino’s horn is now worth more than a  rhino! I want to start drawings and artwork that focus on Wildlife Crime with regards to the growing demand for rhino horn in countries such as China and Vietnam, being created by international criminal syndicates.   According to a recent report on underground investigative work done by Elephant Action League  in China, the black market for rhino horn and rhino products are alive and strong; smuggling on border towns between Vietnam and China are also rife. Local populations use the smuggling business as a means to support themselves and their families.  Reminds me so much of poachers living in poverty on the borders of our national parks and being used by criminal syndicates for their dirty work.  The disconnect between conservation and humans living in nature is so much part of my exploration.

Local communities living in rural areas as pastoralist come into conflict with wild animals and are increasingly feeling animals have a hogher value than their onw lives. In my readings it  is also argued that where governments are committed to tackling poaching and trafficking, their strategies are “fragmented” and often led by environmental agencies with little political power and no mandate to investigate organised crime networks fuelling poaching. “The potential for huge profits and comparatively low risk of punishment has attracted highly sophisticated criminal networks to this lucrative transnational black market.”

Wildlife Crime needs investigators, forensics and documentary work.  Crime syndicates are very efficient and adaptive networks.  The following information is from a report by EAL: ‘The magnitude of the illegal rhino horn trade is further highlighted when reviewing the quantity of horns hitting the market. According to a CITES report for CoP17, “illegal sourcing of horns from poaching, natural mortality, stockpile thefts, pseudo-hunting, and private sector sales suggests that an estimated 8,691 (2,674/year) rhino horns were obtained from October 2012 through 2015.  This represents approximately 20 tons of rhino horn moving out of Africa and into illegal trade in a mere three-year time span”  The EAL investigators found that wildlife contraband, including extensive amounts of rhino horn, flows easily through the China-Vietnam border into Guangxi, through both legitimate ports of entry and illicit land and water routes.

The Global Initiative against Transnational Organised Crime recently released a report written by South African investigative journalist, Julian Rademeyer, and according to the report, North Korean diplomats became involved in state-sanctioned rhino horn and ivory smuggling. Rademeyer found that 18 out of 31 cases of diplomats caught smuggling rhino horn and ivory in Africa since 1986 has been linked to North Korean diplomatic passport holders.

There are many international treaties, a majority of countries have strict wildlife crime laws and there are enough prosecutors and justice systems in place. Yet governments and national authorities are failing to enforce these laws, as corruption becomes systemic in a country.

Hunting during colonial times has also taken its toll on the rhinos and hunting practises of today of these animals can be seen as cruel and unsustainable.  It is also a very elitist market with strong opinions about sustainable conservation methods. ( I think I need to learn more about conservation methods, its history as well as  the environmental narrative.

Pres Rooseveld and rhino hunt

A few days ago I came upon above shown news about a rhino hunting expedition of Pres Rooseveld that made the New York Times.  At the time of this hunt, the Northern White Rino was on the brink of extinction.  The Smithsonian-Rooseveld Expedition or 1909 -10 has a popular exhibit of these animals in the National Museum of Natural History.



International Women’s Day

I have a strong urge to share a bit of this day with my beloved rhinos.  As you know my road with Exploration with Lines was literally put onto my easel by a rhino cow poached for her horn in a NorthWestPark.  During our days camping in that park, we were twice awakened at night ….. with sounds of grazing rhinos in the darkness of the night.  My heart goes out to the many rhino orphans whom are left devastated when the most important   ‘WOMAN” in their lives are killed by poachers….to feed the senseless needs of ignorant rich people, whom I wish could also visit a park where rhinos are just trying to be rhinos.

I started a new study this morning — a rhino being airlifted to a safer wilderness.  So absurd ….therefore I placed the scene in front of the Union Buildings in Pretoria.



I do hope for all woman the same, as for our rhinos:  that we can stay protected by a government who value us with all its powers: law, law enforcement, safe homes and safety… be who we need to be.

Happy Women’s Day to all you courageous women.

Poaching rhinos for their horn

By now it is becoming clear to me that very well equipped  trans national crime syndicates are committing  this crime, weak government structures and corruption contribute to the success of these criminals.   These international crime syndicates have money and will stop at nothing to get horns.


Currently an uncompleted study, contemplating: ..for Asian benefit.   I read somewhere that world renowned W Kentridge described the rhino as a symbol of an exploitative, colonialist view of Africa, a symbol for the subjugation of a continent stripped of its natural resources for European benefit.  

Poverty, inequality and lack of economic opportunity for communities living next to areas where rhinos are protected,  habitat loss, and corruption, are main drivers of a complex interaction between risks and rewards of committing poaching and trafficking of rhino horns. Many under cover operations in consumer countries such a Vietnam, China and Laos has produced evidence of trafficking and the black market of rhino horn. Vietnamese-run criminal syndicates have been found to be the financiers of criminal gangs poaching rhino populations in South Africa, where the country’s legal rhino-hunting industry has been exploited as an avenue to obtain and smuggle rhino horns. During 2007-2011 Vietnamese nationals were found to be the leading nationality for registered sport-hunting permits in South Africa.

IMG_4414Is it a GREEN crime scene any longer?  Criminals are networks dealing in more than one product and it involves lots of cash, money laundering and bribery.